Alabama

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2015
Year Charter School Law Was Enacted
1
Estimated Number of Charter Schools in 2017-18
300
Estimated Number of Charter School Students in 2017-18
177
out of
240
Total Score

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Alabama’s law contains a cap that allows for ample growth, includes a state authorizing pathway, has strong quality-control components, gives operational autonomy to public charter schools, and provides equitable operational and categorical funding to charter schools. The primary weaknesses of the law are that it provides inequitable facilities funding and inadequate accountability for full-time virtual charter schools.

The main places for improvement are ensuring equitable access to capital funding and facilities and strengthening accountability for full-time virtual charter schools.

Component Scores

Are there caps on the growth of charter schools in this state?

Alabama law provides that authorizers may not approve more than 10 start-up public charter schools in a fiscal year. This cap expires on April 1 immediately following the conclusion of the fifth fiscal year after the effective date of the Alabama School Choice and Student Opportunity Act. There is no cap on conversion public charter schools.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
No
1A
No numeric or geographic limits are placed on the number of charter public schools or students.
Yes
1B
If caps exist, there is room for growth.

Are a variety of charter schools allowed?

Alabama law allows new start-ups and public school conversions.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
Yes
2A
New startups.
Yes
2B
Public school conversions.

Are non-district authorizers available to which charter applicants may directly apply?

Alabama law allows any local school board to register to become an authorizer with the state department of education.
It also creates the Alabama Public Charter School Commission. The commission may hear an application for the formation of a public charter school by an applicant only if one of the following factors is met:

* An application to form a public charter school is denied by the local school board overseeing that system and the applicant chooses to appeal the decision of the local school board to the commission.
*The applicant wishes to open a start-up public charter school in a public school system that has chosen not to register as an authorizer.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
Some
3A
The state allows an applicant anywhere in the state to apply directly to a non-district authorizer(s).

Is an authorizer and overall program accountability system required?

Alabama law requires local school boards to register as authorizers with the state department of education prior to becoming an authorizer.
Alabama law requires authorizers to submit an annual report to the state board of education that summarizes their authorizing activities as well as the performance of their charter portfolio.

Alabama law makes the state department of education responsible for overseeing the performance and effectiveness of all authorizers via an oversight process detailed in statute. It allows the state department of education to terminate a local school board’s contract to approve schools. If the commission violates a material provision of a charter contract or fails to remedy any other authorizing problems after due notice from the department, the department shall notify the commission that it intends to notify the Governor, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the President Pro Tempore of the Senate of the actions of the commission unless the commission demonstrates a timely and satisfactory remedy for the violation of the deficiencies. Along with this notification, the department shall publicly request in writing that the Governor, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the President Pro Tempore appointees comply with the requests of the department or face a revocation of their appointment to the commission. The legislature and the governor can remove the ability of the commission to continue authorizing (the entities that gave it that authority).

On or before November 1 of each year beginning in the first year after the state has had public charter schools operating for a full school year, Alabama law requires the state department of education to issue to the Governor, the Legislature, and the public at large, an annual report on the state's public charter schools, drawing from the annual reports submitted by every authorizer as well as any additional relevant data compiled by the department, for the school year ending in the preceding calendar year. The annual report shall include a comparison of the performance of public charter school students with the performance of academically, ethnically, and economically comparable groups of students in non-charter public schools. In addition, the annual report shall include the department's assessment of the successes, challenges, and areas for improvement in meeting the purposes of this act, including the department's recommendations as to any suggested changes in state law or policy necessary to strengthen the state's public charter schools.

Alabama law also requires that at the conclusion of the fifth fiscal year, the state department of education shall submit a report to the Legislature outlining the performance of both start-up and conversion public charter schools. This report shall include, at a minimum, academic performance of all public charter schools in the state, a detailed update on the authorizing process, and recommendations for adjustments to public charter school governance and oversight.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
Yes
4A
Registration process for school boards to affirm their interest in authorizing.
N/A
4B
Application process for other eligible authorizing entities (except a state charter schools commission).
Yes
4C
Authorizer submission of annual report.
Yes
4D
The ability for the state to conduct a review of an authorizer’s performance.
Yes
4E
The ability for the state to sanction an authorizer for poor performance, including suspending an authorizer’s authority to approve new schools.
Yes
4F
Periodic formal evaluation of overall state charter school program and outcomes.

Is there adequate authorizer funding?

To cover costs for overseeing and authorizing public charter schools in accordance with this act, Alabama law allows a local school board serving as an authorizer to charge a portion of annual per student state allocations received by each public charter school it authorizes based on the following schedule:
* If the local school board has oversight over one to three, inclusive, public charter schools: Three percent of annual per student state allocations.
* If the local school board has oversight over four to five, inclusive, public charter schools: Two percent of annual per student state allocations.
* If the local school board has oversight over six to 10, inclusive, public charter schools: One percent of annual per student state allocations.

The law does not provide adequate and guaranteed funding for the Alabama Public Charter School Commission.

The law provides that a public charter school authorized by a local school system may choose to purchase services, such as transportation-related or lunchroom-related services, from its authorizer. In such event, the public charter school and authorizer shall execute an annual service contract, separate from the charter contract, stating the mutual agreement of the parties concerning any service fees to be charged to the public charter school. A public charter school authorized by the commission may not purchase services from the commission, but consistent with this section, may purchase services from the local school system where the public charter school is located.

With the exception of charges for oversight services, the law provides that a public charter school may not be required to purchase services from its authorizer as a condition of charter approval or of a charter contract, nor may any such condition be implied.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
Some
5A
A uniform statewide formula that guarantees annual authorizer funding that is not subject to annual legislative appropriations.
Yes
5B
Requirement to publicly report detailed authorizer expenditures.
Yes
5C
Separate contract for any services purchased from an authorizer by a school.
Yes
5D
Prohibition on authorizers requiring schools to purchase services from them.

Are there transparent charter application, review, and decisionmaking processes?

Alabama law requires application elements for all schools and additional elements for conversion schools, those using educational service providers, and replications.
Alabama law requires local school board authorizers to issue requests for proposals and to conduct a thorough evaluation of each application including an in-person interview and public meeting. It also requires authorizers to make all charter approval or denial decisions in a public meeting and to state reasons for denials in writing.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
Yes
6A
Application elements for all schools.
Yes
6B
Additional application elements specific to conversion schools.
Yes
6C
Additional application elements specific to using educational service providers.
Yes
6D
Additional application elements specific to replications.
Yes
6E
Requirement for thorough evaluation of each application, including an in-person interview and a public meeting.
Yes
6F
Application approval criteria.
Yes
6G
All charter approval or denial decisions made in a public meeting with authorizers stating reasons for denials in writing.

Are performance-based charter contracts required?

Alabama law defines a charter contract to be a fixed term, renewable contract between a charter school board and an authorizer that outlines the roles, powers, responsibilities, and performance expectations for each party. It requires such contracts to contain a performance framework that details the academic and operational performance indicators.
Alabama law provides that the initial contract must be granted for a term of five years.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
Yes
7A
Being created as a separate document from the application and executed by the governing board of the charter school and the authorizer.
Yes
7B
Defining the roles, powers, and responsibilities for the school and its authorizer.
Yes
7C
Defining academic, financial, and operational performance expectations by which the school will be judged based on a performance framework.
Yes
7D
Providing an initial term of five operating years.

Are there comprehensive charter school monitoring and data collection processes?

Alabama law requires that authorizers collect and analyze data to support ongoing evaluation according to the performance framework in the charter contract, including financial accountability.
Alabama law provides authorizers with specific authority to conduct oversight activities needed to fulfill their responsibilities. It also requires each authorizer to produce an annual school performance report for each school.

Alabama law requires authorizers to notify their schools of any perceived problems and provide them with reasonable opportunity for the school to remedy the problem. It also allows authorizers to take appropriate corrective actions short of revocation as needed.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
Yes
8A
Required annual school performance reports.
Yes
8B
Financial accountability for charter schools (e.g., generally accepted accounting principles, independent annual audit reported to authorizer).
Yes
8C
Authorizer authority to conduct oversight activities.
Yes
8D
Authorizer notification to its schools of perceived problems, with opportunities to remedy such problems.
Yes
8E
Authorizer authority to take appropriate corrective actions or exercise sanctions short of revocation.
No
8F
Authorizer may not request duplicative data submission from its charter schools and may not use performance framework to create cumbersome reporting requirements.

Are there clear processes for renewal, nonrenewal, and revocation decisions?

Alabama law requires authorizers to issue school performance renewal reports and requires schools seeking renewal to apply for it using renewal application guidance provided by the authorizer.
Alabama law requires authorizers to have clear criteria for renewal and nonrenewal decisions and to base decisions on evidence in accordance with the performance framework set forth in the charter contract.

Alabama law provides that a charter contract shall not be renewed at the end of the contract term if the public charter school fails to meet the performance expectations set forth in the charter contract or fails to attain the minimum state proficiency standard for public charter schools in each year of its operation and over the charter term, unless the public charter school demonstrates and the authorizer affirms, through formal action of its board, that other indicators of strength and exceptional circumstances justify the continued operation of the school. At the time of renewal, any public charter school that has received a grade of F on the statewide accountability system for all public schools or a grade of D or F for the past three most recent years shall be considered to fall below the minimum state standard.

Alabama law requires charter contract renewals to be for five-year terms, although it allows the authorizer to vary the terms based on the particular circumstances of a charter school.

State law requires authorizers to provide schools with timely notification of potential revocation and due process, including the requirement to conduct a public hearing. It requires all charter renewal, non-renewal, and revocation decisions be made in a public meeting, with authorizers stating reasons for non-renewals and revocations in writing.

Statute requires authorizers to develop a charter school closure protocol to ensure timely notification to parents, orderly transition of students and student records, and proper disposition of public funds, property, and assets.

Alabama requires special petition to the State Department of Education in order to transfer to another authorizer. The Department has the flexibility to grant or deny based on the best interest of students.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
Yes
9A
Authorizer must issue school performance renewal reports to schools whose charter will expire the following year.
Yes
9B
Schools seeking renewal must apply for it.
Yes
9C
Authorizers must issue renewal application guidance that provides an opportunity for schools to augment their performance record and discuss improvements and future plans.
No
9D
Ability to have a differentiated process for renewal of high-performing charter schools.
Yes
9E
Authorizers must use clear criteria for renewal and nonrenewal/revocation.
Yes
9F
Authorizers must ground renewal decisions based on evidence regarding the school’s performance over the term of the charter contract in accordance with the performance framework set forth in the charter contract.
Yes
9G
Requirement that authorizers close chronically low-performing charter schools unless exceptional circumstances exist.
Yes
9H
Authorizers must have the authority to vary length of charter renewal contract terms based on performance or other issues.
Yes
9I
Authorizers must provide charter schools with timely notification of potential revocation or nonrenewal (including reasons) and reasonable time to respond.
Yes
9J
Authorizers must provide charter schools with due process for nonrenewal and revocation decisions (e.g., public hearing, submission of evidence).
Yes
9K
All charter renewal, nonrenewal, and revocation decisions must be made in a public meeting, with authorizers stating reasons for nonrenewals and revocations in writing.
Yes
9L
Authorizers must have school closure protocols to ensure timely parent notification, orderly student and record transitions, and property and asset disposition.
Yes
9M
Any transfer of charter contracts from one authorizer to another are only allowed if they are approved by the state.

Is there transparency regarding educational service providers?

Alabama law allows a public charter school to contract with an education service provider (ESP) for educational design, implementation, or comprehensive management services.
For those applicants proposing to use such ESPs, Alabama law requires them to include in their charter application evidence of the ESP’s success in serving student populations similar to their targeted population.

Within their application, Alabama law requires applicants to provide a term sheet setting forth the proposed duration of the service contract; roles and responsibilities of the governing board; the school staff; and the education service provider; scope of services and resources to be provided by the education service provider; performance evaluation measures and timelines; compensation structure, including clear identification of all fees to be paid to the education service provider; methods of contract oversight and enforcement; investment disclosure; and conditions for renewal and termination of the contract.

Statute provides that school governing boards operate as entities completely independent of any educational service provider.

Statute also requires applications to disclose and explain any existing or potential conflicts of interest between the charter school board and the proposed service provider and any affiliated business entities.

Alabama law requires charter schools to follow same laws regarding fingerprinting and background checks as all public schools. This includes provisions to require contractors to be screened.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
Yes
10A
All types of educational service providers (both for-profit and nonprofit) are allowed to operate all or parts of schools.
Yes
10B
The charter application requires (1) performance data for all current and past schools operated by the ESP, and (2) explanation and evidence of the ESP’s capacity for successful growth while maintaining quality in existing schools.
Yes
10C
A performance contract is required between the independent charter school board and the ESP, with such contract approved by the school’s authorizer.
Some
10D
School governing boards operate as entities completely independent of any ESP, individuals compensated by an ESP are prohibited from serving as voting members on such boards, and existing and potential conflicts of interest between the two entities are required to be disclosed and explained in the charter application.
No
10E
Provides that charter school governing boards must have access to ESP records necessary to oversee the ESP contract.
No
10F
An ESP must annually provide information to its charter school governing board on how that ESP spends public funding it receives when the ESP is performing a public function under applicable state law.
Yes
10G
Requires that similar criminal history record checks and fingerprinting requirements applicable to other public schools shall also be mandatory for on-site employees of ESPs who regularly come into contact with students.

Are the schools fiscally and legally autonomous with independent charter school boards?

Alabama law describes charter schools as independently managed public schools operated by qualified nonprofit organizations. It provides that such schools function as a local education agency and are governed by a board of directors appointed or selected under the terms of their charter application. It states that such boards have clear statutory authority to operate a fiscally and legally autonomous school, including things like receiving and disbursing funds and entering into contracts.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
Yes
11A
Fiscally autonomous schools (e.g., schools have clear statutory authority to receive and disburse funds; incur debt; and pledge, assign, or encumber assets as collateral).
Yes
11B
Legally autonomous schools (e.g., schools have clear statutory authority to enter into contracts and leases, sue and be sued in their own names, and acquire real property).
Yes
11C
Independent school governing boards created specifically to govern their charter schools.

Are there clear student enrollment and lottery procedures?

Alabama law provides that charter schools are open to all students and that students must be selected by lottery if more students apply than a school can accommodate. It also includes anti-discrimination provisions regarding admissions.
It requires start-up charters to first enroll students who reside within the school system in which the school is located. If the number of local students wanting to enroll exceeds the facility's capacity, then the school shall conduct a random selection process to enroll students who reside in the local school system. If the school has additional capacity after admitting students from the local school system, then the school shall admit any students without regard to their residency by a random selection process.

It requires conversion charters to adopt and maintain a policy giving enrollment preference to students who reside within the former attendance zone of the public school. After all students who reside within the former attendance area of that public school are enrolled, enrollment shall first be opened to students residing within the local school system and then outside the local school system.

It requires a public charter school to give enrollment preference to students enrolled in the public charter school the previous school year and to siblings of students already enrolled in the public charter school.

It provides that a charter may give enrollment preference to children of a school’s founders, governing board members, and full-time employees, so long as they constitute no more than 10 percent of the school’s total student population.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
Yes
12A
Open enrollment to any student in the state.
Yes
12B
Anti-discrimination provisions regarding admissions.
Yes
12C
Required enrollment preferences for previously enrolled students within conversions and for prior-year students within charter schools.
Yes
12D
Lottery requirements.

Is there automatic exemption from many state and district laws and regulations?

Except as provided in the charter school act, Alabama law provides that a public charter school shall not be subject to the state's education statutes or any state or local rule, regulation, policy, or procedure relating to non-charter public schools within an applicable local school system regardless of whether such rule, regulation, policy, or procedure is established by the local school board, the State Board of Education, or the State Department of Education.
Alabama law provides that teachers in public charter schools are exempt from state teacher certification requirements.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
Yes
13A
Exemptions from all laws, except those covering health, safety, civil rights, student accountability, employee criminal history checks, open meetings, freedom of information, and generally accepted accounting principles.
Yes
13B
Exemption from state teacher certification requirements.

Is there an automatic collective bargaining exemption?

In Alabama, it is illegal for teachers to engage in collective bargaining. In addition, Alabama law provides that charter schools are exempt from participation in any school district personnel policies.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
Yes
14A
Charter schools authorized by nonlocal board authorizers are exempt from participation in any outside collective bargaining agreements.
Yes
14B
Charter schools authorized by local boards are exempt from participation in any district collective bargaining agreements.

Are multischool charter contracts and/or multicharter contract boards allowed?

Alabama law provides that a single charter school board may hold one or more charter contracts. It also provides that each school must be separate and distinct from any others.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
No
15A
Oversee multiple schools linked under a single contract with independent fiscal and academic accountability for each school.
Yes
15B
Hold multiple charter contracts with independent fiscal and academic accountability for each school.

Is there eligibility and access to extracurricular and interscholastic activities?

Alabama law provides that nothing in the charter school act shall be construed to prevent a public charter school from forming an athletic team and participating in interscholastic athletics in the State of Alabama. If a public charter school elects for its students to participate in athletic contests or competitions, then the school shall pursue membership in the Alabama High School Athletic Association and shall adhere to all guidelines, rules, regulations, and bylaws as other member schools.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
Yes
16A
Laws or regulations explicitly state that charter school students and employees are eligible to participate in all extracurricular and interscholastic activities available to noncharter public school students and employees.
No
16B
Laws or regulations explicitly allow charter school students in schools not providing extracurricular and interscholastic activities to have access to those activities at noncharter public schools.

Is there clear identification of special education responsibilities?

Alabama law states that start-up charters are their own LEAs and that conversion charters are part of the LEA in which the non-charter public school existed prior to its conversion to a charter.
Alabama law explicitly requires the state to send any federal dollars associated with a special education student directly to the public charter school.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
Yes
17A
Clarity regarding which entity is the local education agency (LEA) responsible for providing special education services.
Yes
17B
Clarity regarding the flow of federal, state, and local special education funds to the designated LEA.
No
17C
Clarity regarding funding for low-incident, high-cost services for charter schools (in the same amount and/or in a manner similar to other LEAs).
No
17D
Clarity that charter schools have access to all regional and state services and supports available to traditional districts.

Is there equitable operational funding and equal access to all state and federal categorical funding?

While it appears that this law has many of the model law components related to equitable operational and categorical funding, there is no evidence yet of the actual level of equity.
Alabama law provides that for each of its students, a public charter school shall receive the same amount of state funds, including funds earmarked for the Foundation Program transportation, school nurses, technology coordinators, and other line items that may be included in the appropriation for the Foundation Program Fund, that, for the then-current fiscal year, would have otherwise been allocated on behalf of each public charter school student to the local school system where the student resides. This amount shall reflect the status of each student according to grade level, economic disadvantage, limited English proficiency, and special education needs.

Alabama law provides, that for each of its students, a public charter school shall receive the same amount of local tax revenue, that, for the then-current fiscal year, would have otherwise been allocated on behalf of each public charter school student to the local non-charter public school of each student's residence, excluding those funds already earmarked through a vote of the local school board for debt service, capital expenditures, or transportation. As necessary, the department shall promulgate processes and procedures to determine the specific local revenue allocations according to the Foundation Program for each public charter school.

Alabama law provides that the maximum annual local tax allocation forwarded to a start-up public charter school from a local school system shall, for each student, not exceed the per student portion of the state required 10 mill ad valorem match. It also provides that the maximum annual local tax allocation forwarded to a conversion public charter school from a local school system shall, for each student, equal the amount that would have been received by the local education agency of the student's residence for each student who now attends a conversion public charter school, minus any amounts otherwise excluded.

Alabama law provides that the state department of education shall direct the proportionate share of moneys generated under federal and state categorical aid programs to public charter schools serving students eligible for such aid.

Alabama law provides that the state department of education shall disburse state transportation funding to a public charter school on the same basis and in the same manner as it is paid to public school systems. It also provides that public charter schools that do not provide transportation services shall not be allocated any federal, state, or local funds otherwise earmarked for transportation-related expenses.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
Some
18A
Equitable operational funding statutorily driven.
Yes
18B
Equal access to all applicable categorical federal and state funding and clear guidance on the pass-through of such funds.
Yes
18C
Funding for transportation similar to school districts.
No
18D
Annual report offering district and charter school funding comparisons and including annual recommendations to the legislature for any needed equity enhancements.

Is there equitable access to capital funding and facilities?

Alabama law contains a small number of the model law's provisions regarding equitable access to capital funding and facilities.
Alabama law provides that public charter schools shall have the same rights and access to Public School and College Authority (PSCA) funding opportunities as non-charter public schools. It provides that the PSCA and the department shall adopt and maintain a policy to ensure that public charter schools receive access to equitable facilities funding.

Alabama law provides that a public charter school shall have a right of first refusal to purchase or lease at or below fair market value a closed or unused public school facility or property located in a school system from which it draws its students if the school system decides to sell or lease the public school facility or property. It defines an unused facility means a school building or other local board of education owned building that is or could be appropriate for school use, in which more than 60 percent of the building is not being used for direct student instruction or critical administration purposes and for which no offer to purchase has been executed. It requires the department to publish the names and addresses of unused facilities on its website in a list that is searchable at least by each facility's name and address. This list shall be updated at least once a year by May 1.

Alabama law requires that public charter schools have the same rights and access to Public School and College Authority (PSCA) funding opportunities as non-charter public schools.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
Facilities Funding
No
19A
A per-pupil facilities allowance that annually reflects actual average district capital costs.
No
19B
A state grant program for charter school facilities.
Yes
19C
Equal access to existing state facilities programs available to noncharter public schools.
Access to Public Space
No
19D
A requirement for districts to provide school district space or funding to charter schools if the majority of that schools’ students reside in that district.
Yes
19E
Right of first refusal to purchase or lease at or below fair market value a closed, unused, or underused public school facility or property.
Access to Financing Tools
No
19F
A state loan program for charter school facilities.
Yes
19G
Equal access to tax-exempt bonding authorities or allowing charter schools to have their own bonding authority
No
19H
Pledging the moral obligation of the state to help charter schools obtain more favorable bond financing terms.
No
19I
The creation and funding of a state charter school debt reserve fund.
No
19J
The inclusion of charter schools in school district bonding and mill levy requests.
No
19K
A mechanism to provide credit enhancement for charter school facilities.
Other
Some
19L
Charter schools allowed to contract at or below fair market value with a school district, a college or university, or any other public or for-profit or nonprofit private entity for the use of facility for a school building.
No
19M
Certain entities allowed to provide space to charter schools within their facilities under their preexisting zoning and land use designations.
No
19N
Charter school facilities exempt from ad valorem taxes and other assessment fees not applicable to other public schools.

Is there access to relevant employee retirement systems?

Alabama law provides that start-up public charter schools may elect to participate in the Teachers’ Retirement System and Public Education Employees’ Health Insurance Plan. It also provides that conversion charter schools shall participate in the Teachers’ Retirement System and Public Education Employees’ Health Insurance Plan and shall provide compensation for teachers and school nurses that complies with the pro rata daily rate of pay as provided in the state minimum salary schedules for teachers and school nurses.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
Yes
20A
Charter schools have access to relevant state retirement systems available to other public schools.
Some
20B
Charter schools have the option to participate (i.e., not required).

Are there provisions for full-time virtual charter schools?

Alabama law does not include any of the model law’s provisions for full-time virtual charter schools.

Subcomponents

Key
Yes
Some
No
No
21A
An authorizing structure whereby full-time virtual charter schools that serve students from more than one district may be approved only by an authorizer with statewide chartering jurisdiction and authority, full-time virtual charter schools that serve students from one school district may be authorized by that school district, and a cap is placed on the total amount of funding that an authorizer may withhold from a full-time virtual charter school.
No
21B
Legally permissible criteria and processes for enrollment based on the existence of supports needed for student success.
No
21C
Enrollment level provisions that establish maximum enrollment levels for each year of a charter contract, with any increases in enrollment from one year to the next based on whether the school meets its performance requirements.
No
21D
Accountability provisions that include virtual-specific goals regarding student enrollment, attendance, engagement, achievement, truancy, and attrition.
No
21E
Funding levels per student based on costs proposed and justified by the operators.
No
21F
Performance-based funding whereby full-time virtual charter schools are funded via a performance-based funding system based on meeting the accountability performance provisions.