Measuring Up

 



Tennessee

TOTAL SCORE:
133 out of 240

Rank: 29 out of 44

Year Charter School Law Was Enacted: 2002
Estimated Number of Charter Schools in 2016-17: 107
Estimated Number of Charter School Students in 2016-17: 30,000

While Tennessee’s law does not cap charter public school growth, it primarily allows only local school district authorizers, affords insufficient autonomy and accountability, and provides inequitable funding.

Tennessee’s law needs improvement in several areas, including ensuring equitable operational funding and equitable access to capital funding and facilities; creating additional authorizing options in all of the state’s districts; providing adequate authorizer funding; ensuring authorizer accountability; beefing up the requirements for performance-based contracts, charter school oversight, and renewals; and ensuring transparency regarding educational service providers.

*Since Tennessee does not allow full-time virtual charter schools, the highest score possible is 228 for the remaining 20 components. However, we converted this score to one that is comparable to the states that allow full-time virtual charter schools. Tennessee received 126 out of the 228 points available for the remaining 20 components, or 55 percent. We then multiplied the total points possible for all 21 components (240) by 55 percent to get a score comparable to the other states (133).

Do Tennessee's laws align to the model law?

Model Law Component

Matches

Tennessee's Charter Law

Score

1. No Caps

weight = 3 | Possible total = 12

Tennessee law does not place any caps on charter school growth.

12

1A. No numeric or geographic limits are placed on the number of charter schools or students.

1B. If caps exist, there is room for growth.

N/A

2. A Variety of Charter Public Schools Allowed

weight = 2 | Possible total = 8

Tennessee law allows new start-ups and public school conversions.

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2A. New startups.

2B. Public school conversions.

3. Multiple Authorizers Available

weight = 3 | Possible total = 12

Tennessee law allows local school boards to authorize charter schools. The law also allows the achievement school district to authorize charter schools within a local educational agency (LEA) for the purpose of providing opportunities for students within the LEA who are zoned to attend or enrolled in a chronically low-performing school that is eligible to be placed in the achievement school district. It also allows the state board of education to authorize charter school applications sponsored by local school boards or upon appeal from a denial of approval of a charter school application by an LEA that contains at least one priority school on the current or last preceding priority school list. There is some authorizing activity by local school boards and the achievement school district.

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3A. The state allows two or more authorizing options (e.g., school districts and a state charter schools commission) for each applicant with direct application to each authorizer.

4. Authorizer & Overall Program Accountability System Required

weight = 3 | Possible total = 12

While the law does not require the legislature and governor to regularly review the performance of the achievement school district and the state board of education as an authorizer, they can do so at any time. In addition, the ability of the achievement school district and the state board of education to continue authorizing can be removed by the legislature and governor (the entities that gave them that authority).

Tennessee law requires the state commissioner of education to prepare and submit an annual report on charter schools to the joint oversight committee on education based upon the information provided in charter school annual reports.

6

4A. Registration process for school boards to affirm their interest in authorizing.

4B. Application process for other eligible authorizing entities (except a state charter schools commission).

N/A

4C. Authorizer submission of annual report.

4D. The ability for the state to conduct a review of an authorizer’s performance.

4E. The ability for the state to sanction an authorizer for poor performance, including suspending an authorizer’s authority to approve new schools.

4F. Periodic formal evaluation of overall state charter school program and outcomes.

5. Adequate Authorizer Funding

weight = 2 | Possible total = 8

Tennessee law allows the achievement school district to receive an annual authorizer fee of up to 3% of a charter school’s per student state and local funding. By May 1st of each year, the law requires the state commission of education to set the percentage of a charter school’s per student state and local funding that the achievement school district shall receive as the annual authorizer free for the next school year. The law also allows the state board to charge up to 4% for the first two years of a school, and up to 3% thereafter.

Tennessee law allows LEAs to charge applicants an application fee in an amount approved by the local board of education, not to exceed $500 per application.

2

5A. A uniform statewide formula that guarantees annual authorizer funding that is not subject to annual legislative appropriations.

5B. Requirement to publicly report detailed authorizer expenditures.

5C. Separate contract for any services purchased from an authorizer by a school.

5D. Prohibition on authorizers requiring schools to purchase services from them.

6. Transparent Charter Application, Review, and Decisionmaking Processes

weight = 4 | Possible total = 16

Tennessee law contains application elements for all schools and additional application elements specific to conversion schools. The law provides that a chartering authority may take into consideration the past and current performance, or lack thereof, of any charter school operated by the sponsor.

Tennessee law requires all charter approval or denial decisions to be made in a public meeting, with authorizers stating reasons for denials in writing.

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6A. Application elements for all schools.

6B. Additional application elements specific to conversion schools.

6C. Additional application elements specific to using educational service providers.

6D. Additional application elements specific to replications.

6E. Requirement for thorough evaluation of each application, including an in-person interview and a public meeting.

6F. Application approval criteria.

6G. All charter approval or denial decisions made in a public meeting with authorizers stating reasons for denials in writing.

7. Performance-Based Charter Contracts Required

weight = 4 | Possible total = 16

Tennessee law requires the approval of a written agreement signed by the school and the authorizer. While the law requires the agreement to include school roles, powers, and responsibilities, it does not require it to include authorizer roles, powers, and responsibilities.

Tennessee law requires that the term of a charter agreement be 10 years. It also provides that an interim review of a charter school must be conducted by its authorizer under guidelines developed by the state department of education in the fifth year of a charter school's initial period of operation and also in the fifth year following any renewal of a charter agreement. Such guidelines must require a charter school to submit to the authorizer a report on the progress of the school in achieving the goals, objectives, pupil performance standards, content standards and other terms of the approved charter agreement.

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7A. With such contracts being created as a separate document from the application and executed by the governing board of the charter school and the authorizer.

7B. With such contracts defining the roles, powers, and responsibilities for the school and its authorizer.

7C. With such contracts defining academic, financial, and operational performance expectations by which the school will be judged based on a performance framework.

7D. With such contracts providing an initial term of five operating years.

8. Comprehensive Charter School Monitoring and Data Collection Processes

weight = 4 | Possible total = 16

Tennessee law includes a small number of the model law’s provisions for comprehensive charter school monitoring and data collection processes. The law requires a charter school to make at least an annual progress report to its authorizer and the state commissioner of education. The law requires the report to contain at least the following information: the progress of the school towards achieving the goals outlined in its charter; the same information required in the reports prepared by local boards of education pursuant to state laws, rules and regulations; and financial records of the school, including revenues and expenditures.

The law requires each charter school to provide in its annual report a detailed accounting, including the amounts and sources, of funds other than those received from its authorizer.

Tennessee law requires a charter school to conduct an annual audit of its accounts and records, including internal school activity and cafeteria funds.

Tennessee law requires a charter school to maintain its accounts and records in accordance with generally-accepted accounting principles and in conformance with the uniform chart of accounts and accounting requirements prescribed by the comptroller of the treasury. A school must prepare and publish an annual financial report that encompasses all funds and includes the audited financial statements of the charter school.

Tennessee law allows the state comptroller of the treasury to audit any books and records, including internal school activity and cafeteria funds, of any charter school created under this chapter and when the audit is deemed necessary or appropriate by the comptroller of the treasury. The state comptroller of the treasury must have the full cooperation of officials of the charter school in the performance of the audit or audits.

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8A. Required annual school performance reports.

8B. Financial accountability for charter schools (e.g., generally accepted accounting principles, independent annual audit reported to authorizer).

8C. Authorizer authority to conduct oversight activities.

8D. Authorizer notification to its schools of perceived problems, with opportunities to remedy such problems.

8E. Authorizer authority to take appropriate corrective actions or exercise sanctions short of revocation.

8F. Authorizer may not request duplicative data submission from its charter schools and may not use performance framework to create cumbersome reporting requirements.

9. Clear Processes for Renewal, Nonrenewal, and Revocation Decisions

weight = 4 | Possible total = 16

Tennessee law requires schools seeking renewal to apply for it. One year prior to the date on which a charter school is required to submit a renewal application, the law requires the authorizer to submit to the charter school a performance report that directly reflects the renewal application.

Tennessee law provides that a charter agreement shall be revoked or denied renewal if the school receives identification as a priority school unless the school was authorized by the achievement school district or is a conversion charter school and has not received identification as a priority school for two consecutive cycles. Tennessee law also provides that a charter agreement may be revoked or denied renewal if the chartering authority determines that the charter school committed a material violation of any of the standards, conditions or procedures set forth in law, failed to meet generally-accepted standards of fiscal management, or staffed its school by utilizing or otherwise relying on nonimmigrant foreign worker H1B or J1 visa programs in excess of 3.5% of the total number of positions at any single school location for any school year. Except in the case of fraud, misappropriation of funds, flagrant disregard of the charter agreement, or similar misconduct, the law provides that a decision to revoke or not renew a charter becomes effective at the close of the academic year.

Tennessee law requires that the term of a charter agreement is 10 years. It also provides that an interim review of a charter school must be conducted by its authorizer under guidelines developed by the state department of education in the fifth year of a charter school's initial period of operation and also in the fifth year following any renewal of a charter agreement. Such guidelines must require a charter school to submit to the authorizer a report on the progress of the school in achieving the goals, objectives, pupil performance standards, content standards and other terms of the approved charter agreement.

While Tennessee law doesn’t require authorizers to provide charter schools with due process for nonrenewal and revocation decisions, it does allow for limited revocation or nonrenewal appeals to the state board of education, except for revocations or non-renewals based on a failure to remain out of priority status.

Tennessee law requires all renewal, nonrenewal, and revocation decisions be made in a public meeting, with authorizers stating reasons for their decisions in writing.

Tennessee law contains closure protocols to address student transitions, asset disposition, and debt responsibility.

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9A. Authorizer must issue school performance renewal reports to schools whose charter will expire the following year.

9B. Schools seeking renewal must apply for it.

9C. Authorizers must issue renewal application guidance that provides an opportunity for schools to augment their performance record and discuss improvements and future plans.

9D. Ability to have a differentiated process for renewal of high-performing charter schools.

9E. Authorizers must use clear criteria for renewal and nonrenewal/revocation.

9F. Authorizers must ground renewal decisions based on evidence regarding the school’s performance over the term of the charter contract in accordance with the performance framework set forth in the charter contract.

9G. Requirement that authorizers close chronically low-performing charter schools unless exceptional circumstances exist.

9H. Authorizers must have the authority to vary length of charter renewal contract terms based on performance or other issues.

9I. Authorizers must provide charter schools with timely notification of potential revocation or nonrenewal (including reasons) and reasonable time to respond.

9J. Authorizers must provide charter schools with due process for nonrenewal and revocation decisions (e.g., public hearing, submission of evidence).

9K. All charter renewal, nonrenewal, and revocation decisions must be made in a public meeting, with authorizers stating reasons for nonrenewals and revocations in writing.

9L. Authorizers must have school closure protocols to ensure timely parent notification, orderly student and record transitions, and property and asset disposition.

9M. Any transfer of charter contracts from one authorizer to another are only allowed if they are approved by the state.

10. Transparency Regarding Educational Service Providers (ESPs) Allowed

weight = 2 | Possible total = 8

Tennessee law includes a small number of the model law’s provisions for educational service providers.

Tennessee law allows a charter school governing board to enter into contracts, but statute contains no provisions regarding the details of any ESP arrangements. In addition, statute specifically prohibits charter governing boards from contracting for the management or operation of the charter school with a for-profit entity.

The law provides that a chartering authority may take into consideration the past and current performance, or lack thereof, of any charter school operated by the sponsor.

2

10A. All types of educational service providers (both for-profit and nonprofit) are allowed to operate all or parts of schools.

10B. The charter application requires (1) performance data for all current and past schools operated by the ESP, and (2) explanation and evidence of the ESP’s capacity for successful growth while maintaining quality in existing schools.

10C. A performance contract is required between the independent charter school board and the ESP, with such contract approved by the school’s authorizer.

10D. School governing boards operate as entities completely independent of any ESP, individuals compensated by an ESP are prohibited from serving as voting members on such boards, and existing and potential conflicts of interest between the two entities are required to be disclosed and explained in the charter application.

10E. Provides that charter school governing boards must have access to ESP records necessary to oversee the ESP contract.

10F. An ESP must annually provide information to its charter school governing board on how that ESP spends public funding it receives when the ESP is performing a public function under applicable state law.

10G. Requires that similar criminal history record checks and fingerprinting requirements applicable to other public schools shall also be mandatory for on-site employees of ESPs who regularly come into contact with students.

11. Fiscally and Legally Autonomous Schools with Independent Charter Public School Boards

weight = 3 | Possible total = 12

Tennessee law provides requirements for fiscally and legally autonomous schools with independent charter school boards. Statute specifically states that a charter school can buy, sell or lease property, borrow funds as needed, pledge assets as security, and sue and be sued.

A governing body must be established for each charter school to oversee matters, including, but not limited to, budgeting, curriculum and other operating procedures.

12

11A. Fiscally autonomous schools (e.g., schools have clear statutory authority to receive and disburse funds; incur debt; and pledge, assign, or encumber assets as collateral).

11B. Legally autonomous schools (e.g., schools have clear statutory authority to enter into contracts and leases, sue and be sued in their own names, and acquire real property).

11C. Independent school governing boards created specifically to govern their charter schools.

12. Clear Student Enrollment and Lottery Procedures

weight = 2 | Possible total = 8

A charter school is subject to all federal and state laws and constitutional provisions prohibiting discrimination on the basis of disability, race, creed, color, national origin, religion, ancestry or need for special education services.

According to Tennessee law, if applications exceed the planned capacity of the charter school, the following preferences shall apply: pupils in attendance in the previous school year at any public school that converts to become a charter school; pupils attending during the previous school year another charter school that has an articulation agreement with the enrolling charter school provided that the articulation agreement has been approved by the chartering authority or a pre-K program operated by the charter school sponsor; children residing within the LEA service area in which the charter school is located, but who are not enrolled in public schools, if those children would otherwise be included in the area in which the charter school will focus; and children residing outside the LEA in which the charter school is located and whose needs would be included in the area in which the charter school will focus. The law also provides that a chartering authority may authorize charter schools to enroll students residing outside the LEA in which the charter school is located pursuant to the LEA out-of-district enrollment policy and in compliance with state law.

The law provides that a charter school authorized by the state board may enroll any student in the LEA in which the charter school is located who is in the grades served by the school. However, if a charter school applicant submits an application with the focus of serving students from one of the above groups, then the school shall give preference in enrollment to students from such group or groups.

If enrollment within one of the above groups exceeds the planned capacity of the school, the law requires that enrollment within that group shall be determined on the basis of a lottery.

Tennessee law requires charter schools authorized by the achievement school district to conduct an initial student application period of at least 30 days. During this period, all students zoned to attend or currently enrolled in a school that is eligible to be placed in the achievement school district may enroll. If, at the end of the initial student enrollment period, the number of eligible students seeking to be enrolled does not exceed the school's capacity or the capacity of a program, class, grade level, or building, then the charter school may enroll the child or children of a teacher, staff member, sponsor, or member of the governing body as well as students who, in the previous school year, failed to test proficient in the subjects of reading/language arts or mathematics in grades 3-8 on the Tennessee comprehensive assessment program examinations, students who, in the previous school year, failed to test proficient in the subjects of reading/language arts or mathematics on the end of course assessments in grades 9-12, or students who are eligible for free or reduced price lunch and in accordance with enrollment provisions contained in the charter agreement; provided, however, that no school's total enrollment of such students shall exceed 25% of the total school enrollment.

The law allows charter schools to give preference to the siblings of a pupil who is already enrolled and to the children of a teacher, sponsor or member of the governing body of the charter school, not to exceed 10% of total enrollment or 25 students, whichever is less.

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12A. Open enrollment to any student in the state.

12B. Anti-discrimination provisions regarding admissions.

12C. Required enrollment preferences for previously enrolled students within conversions and for prior-year students within charter schools.

12D. Lottery requirements.

13. Automatic Exemptions from Many State and District Laws and Regulations

weight = 3 | Possible total = 12

Instead of providing charter schools with automatic exemptions from most state and district laws and regulations, Tennessee law provides that charter schools may apply to either the school district or the state commissioner of education for waivers of regulations and statutes.

Tennessee law requires charter teachers to be certified.

3

13A. Exemptions from all laws, except those covering health, safety, civil rights, student accountability, employee criminal history checks, open meetings, freedom of information, and generally accepted accounting principles.

13B. Exemption from state teacher certification requirements.

14. Automatic Collective Bargaining Exemption

weight = 3 | Possible total = 12

The law does not require a charter school to participate in a collective bargaining agreement. However, a charter school's employees may form a bargaining unit, which may elect to represent themselves in negotiations with the charter school's governing body or they may elect to be represented by any qualified person or organization, including the local bargaining unit within the school district. A charter school's bargaining unit can bargain only with the governing board of the charter school, and not with the local school board.

12

14A. Charter schools authorized by nonlocal board authorizers are exempt from participation in any district collective bargaining agreements.

14B. Charter schools authorized by local boards are exempt from participation in any district collective bargaining agreements.

15. Multischool Charter Contracts and/or Multicharter Contract Boards Allowed

weight = 2 | Possible total = 8

Tennessee law is silent regarding multischool charter contracts and multicharter contract boards. In practice, some independent public charter school boards are overseeing multiple charter contracts.

2

15A. An independent charter school board may oversee multiple schools linked under a single contract with independent fiscal and academic accountability for each school.

15B. An independent charter school board may hold multiple charter contracts with independent fiscal and academic accountability for each school.

16. Extracurricular and Interscholastic Activities Eligibility and Access

weight = 1 | Possible total = 4

Tennessee law is silent about extra-curricular and interscholastic activities eligibility and access for charter school students and employees.

1

16A. Laws or regulations explicitly state that charter school students and employees are eligible to participate in all extracurricular and interscholastic activities available to noncharter public school students and employees.

16B. Laws or regulations explicitly allow charter school students in schools not providing extracurricular and interscholastic activities to have access to those activities at noncharter public schools.

17. Clear Provisions Regarding Special Education Responsibilities

weight = 2 | Possible total = 8

Tennessee law includes a small number of the model law’s provisions regarding special education responsibilities. Tennessee law requires charter schools to provide special education services for students.

2

17A. Clarity regarding which entity is the local education agency (LEA) responsible for providing special education services.

17B. Clarity regarding the flow of federal, state, and local special education funds to the designated LEA.

17C. Clarity regarding funding for low-incident, high-cost services for charter schools (in the same amount and/or in a manner similar to other LEAs).

17D. Clarity that charter schools have access to all regional and state services and supports available to traditional districts.

18. Equitable Operational Funding and Equal Access to All State and Federal Categorical Funding

weight = 4 | Possible total = 16

For charter schools authorized by local school boards and the achievement school district, Tennessee law requires a local board of education to allocate to a charter school an amount equal to the per student state and local funds received by the district and all appropriate allocations under federal law or regulation, including, but not limited to, Title I and ESEA funds. The law requires the state department of education to promulgate rules and regulations that provide for the determination of the allocation of state and local funds. At a minimum, the law specifies that the rules must provide that: allocations shall be based on 100% of state and local funds received by the district, including current funds allocated for capital outlay purposes, excluding the proceeds of debt obligations and associated debt service; student enrollments used in allocations shall be for the same period used in allocating state funds to the district under the basic education program; and allocations to the charter school may not be reduced by the LEA for administrative, indirect or any other category of cost or charge except as specifically provided in a charter agreement.

Funding for charter schools authorized by the state board shall be in accordance with the above provisions, except that the LEA in which the charter school operates shall pay to the department one hundred percent of the per student share of local funding and one hundred percent of any federal funding in the custody of the LEA that is due to the charter school. The department shall withhold from the LEA one hundred percent of the per student share of state funding that is due to the charter school as well as one hundred percent of all federal funding in the custody of the department that is due to the charter school. The department shall then allocate and disburse one hundred percent of these funds to the charter school in accordance with procedures developed by the department.

In a recent national study of charter school funding (University of Arkansas, Charter School Funding: Inequity Expands, 2014), Tennessee charter schools were receiving on average $9,087 per pupil in public funds, while district public schools would have received $10,583 for those students. As a result, the state's charter schools were receiving $1,496 per pupil - or 16.5% - less than what the district public schools would have received for those students. This figure includes all sources of funding, and analysis reveals significant inequities for both operational and capital funding (see component 19 for information on capital issues).

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18A. Equitable operational funding statutorily driven.

18B. Equal access to all applicable categorical federal and state funding and clear guidance on the pass-through of such funds.

18C. Funding for transportation similar to school districts.

18D. Annual report offering district and charter public school funding comparisons and including annual recommendations to the legislature for any needed equity enhancements.

19. Equitable Access to Capital Funding and Facilities

weight = 4 | Possible total = 16

Tennessee law requires the state department of education to calculate the amount of state funding required under the basic education program (BEP) for capital outlay as a non-classroom component to be received in a fiscal year by a district in which one or more charter schools operate, to reserve from the sum for such district the funds that constitute the amount due to charter schools operating in the district and not distribute such reserved amount to the district, and to distribute from the reserved amount directly to each charter school its total per pupil share as determined by its average daily membership (ADM). The law provides that the per pupil share of each charter school must be based on prior year ADM, except that the per-pupil share of any charter school in its first year of operation must be based on the anticipated enrollment in the charter agreement.

The law further provides that a district must include in the local share of funds paid to a charter school the required district match for the state funds generated under the BEP for capital outlay as a non-classroom component that are paid directly to a charter school as per pupil facilities aid. The amount of the allotment varies by the district in which a charter school is located.

The law requires the state department to determine the amount of the state BEP non-classroom component for capital outlay to be distributed to a charter school authorized by the state board. The LEA shall pay to the department one hundred percent of the required local match under the BEP for capital outlay as a non-classroom component for distribution to the charter school.

Currently, the allotment is between approximately $215 and $315 per pupil.

The law requires an LEA having underutilized and vacant properties to make the properties available for use by charter schools operating in the LEA. The law provides that a charter school may not be required to pay a base rent for the use of any underutilized and vacant property owned or operated by the LEA and may only be required to remit payment for the maintenance and operational costs associated with the occupancy of the property or space.

Furthermore, by October 1 of each year, the law requires any LEA in which one or more charter schools operates to annually catalog all vacant properties owned or operated by the LEA and all vacant space within any educational facility owned or operated by the LEA. The law requires the LEA to submit a comprehensive listing of all such properties and space to the state department of education, which must make an LEA's list available to any charter school operating in the LEA or to any sponsor seeking to establish a charter school in the LEA.

The law provides that charter schools that have the support of their local taxing authority are eligible to access tax-exempt financing through the Tennessee Local Development Authority.

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Facilities Funding

19A. A per-pupil facilities allowance that annually reflects actual average district capital costs.

19B. A state grant program for charter school facilities.

19C. Equal access to existing state facilities programs available to noncharter public schools.


Access to Public Space

19D. A requirement for districts to provide school district space or funding to charter schools if the majority of that school’s students reside in that district.

19E. Right of first refusal to purchase or lease at or below fair market value a closed, unused, or underused public school facility or property.


Access to Financing Tools

19F. A state loan program for charter school facilities.

19G. Equal access to tax-exempt bonding authorities or allowing charter schools to have their own bonding authority.

19H. Pledging the moral obligation of the state to help charter schools obtain more favorable bond financing terms.

19I. The creation and funding of a state charter school debt reserve fund.

19J. The inclusion of charter schools in school district bonding and mill levy requests.

19K. A mechanism to provide credit enhancement for charter school facilities.


Other

19L. Charter schools allowed to contract at or below fair market value with a school district, a college or university, or any other public or for-profit or nonprofit private entity for the use of facility for a school building.

19M. Certain entities allowed to provide space to charter schools within their facilities under their preexisting zoning and land use designations.

19N. Charter school facilities exempt from ad valorem taxes and other assessment fees not applicable to other public schools.

20. Access to Relevant Employee Retirement Systems

weight = 2 | Possible total = 8

Tennessee law requires charter schools to participate in the relevant employee retirement systems.

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20A. Charter schools have access to relevant state retirement systems available to other public schools.

20B. Charter schools have the option to participate (i.e., not required).

21. Full-Time Virtual Charter School Provisions (if such schools allowed by state)

weight = 3 | Possible total = 12

Tennessee law does not allow full-time virtual charter schools.

N/A

21A. An authorizing structure whereby full-time virtual charter schools that serve students from more than one district may be approved only by an authorizer with statewide chartering jurisdiction and authority, full-time virtual charter schools that serve students from one school district may be authorized by that school district, and a cap is placed on the total amount of funding that an authorizer may withhold from a full-time virtual charter school.

N/A

21B. Legally permissible criteria and processes for enrollment based on the existence of supports needed for student success.

N/A

21C. Enrollment level provisions that establish maximum enrollment levels for each year of a charter contract, with any increases in enrollment from one year to the next based on whether the school meets its performance requirements.

N/A

21D. Accountability provisions that include virtual-specific goals regarding student enrollment, attendance, engagement, achievement, truancy, and attrition.

N/A

21E. Funding levels per student based on costs proposed and justified by the operators.

N/A

21F. Performance-based funding whereby full-time virtual charter schools are funded via a performance-based funding system based on meeting the accountability performance provisions.

N/A